The story of Monkey and his journey West has fascinated and delighted readers for hundreds of years. com viagra was compiled and polished by Wu Cheng’en in the 16th century, but the legend existed long before that. com viagra is based on the true story of Xuan Zang (602-664), a Buddhist monk, and his journey to India for in search of sutras. Over hundreds of years, the tale was embellished and evolved. Through the retelling, this Buddhist tale ingrained itself on the culture. Companions were added to the mix so that Xuang Zang could be protected on his journey. The companions came in the form of god-demons on the path of redemption. Sun Wukung, the Monkey King, along with Chu Pa Chieh, a pig spirit also known as Pigsy, and Sha Monk, a water demon also known as Sandy, were chosen for the journey. When the tale begins, it focuses on Monkey. Monkey is born from a rock and eventually trouble makes for the gods. He becomes immortal by erasing his name from the roster of Death and eats the peaches of immortality. He is a troublemaker and a trickster, yet he appeals to the audience as an imperfect role model. He changes and grows, eventually finding enlightenment, proving to one and all that there is hope. This fascinating story still continues to develop today. Though hundreds of years have passed, the appeal of Monkey has not faded. In fact, he remains one of the most lasting icons in Asia today. Because of the polyfunctional qualities in Monkey, the tale of Monkey is still evolving. Through the medium of com viagra or Japanese comic books, we see the continued growth of his legend.
In the succession of religions, there are only so many ways the old gods can end up. They can fade away, in which case they are lost us for good; they can be held up to scorn as pagan demons who persisted in their old, evil ways; or they can be recruited into the new faith as its servants and defenders. Monkey followed the last pattern. He was an old Titan, once chained and damned, who was somehow freed and made to serve the Buddha and his messenger, Tripitaka.
So Sun Wukung must be absorbed by this new order. Monkey is captured and punished by Buddha for his audacity. Sun Wukung, trapped in a mountain, is sentenced forever to his punishment. Or he would have been, if it had not been for the goddess of Mercy, Guanyin. He can redeem himself by going with Xuang Zang to India. A metal helmet is placed upon his head, a training tool that offers up pain if Sun Wukung even thinks about straying. And he goes forth, serving his master the best that he can.
We read as Monkey eventually ends the journey and reaches enlightenment. It is this development that we are fascinated with. In the first half of his story, Monkey is asked about his name. He answers simply, yet we are touched by his profundity.
Monkey thought the question concerned his (monkey) nature or temperament, so he answered: I have no xing. If a man rebukes me, I am not offended; if he hits me, I am not angered. In fact, I just repay him with a ceremonial greeting and that’s all. My whole life is without ill temper. (Yu 1977, 81)[iii]
He is a simple creature really. The fact that he is seemingly unaffected by the little annoyances the world offers up seems too good to be true. Later he goes on to say that he has no last name. Whalen Lai points out:
Monkey’s first answer makes him seem a nitwit: that monkey of a description of himself is his being himself. But when he further clarifies the situation with his second answer, he truly shows his “naturalness.” He is, to use an American expression that the Taoists would applaud, “a natural.” This child of nature is as nameless as nature itself.
We see within Son Wukung potential for greatness. This innocence is a quality that most adults have lost long ago. In Monkey’s trials and acts, we see a bit of ourselves peeping through. The parallel of growth is evident in his punishment and eventual quest. There is still the playfulness, but also the knowledge that there are consequences to ones actions. As the story of the com viagra opens, Sun Wukung is a creature of the now. His actions are impulsive, with no thoughts to the consequences. Yet, there is a wisdom within as well. We see these qualities of Monkey in the stories that have been and are being developed today. In Japan, the characters for Sun Wukung are read as Son Goku. Through many mediums, Monkey has continued to grow. One area where his story has evolved and developed is in manga.
Akira Toriyama’s takes the persona of Monkey and gives him a human face. The mangacom viagra takes a look at his life from childhood to adult hood.
He is a noble savage who knows nothing of civilization. Good manners, covetousness, lechery, falseness, are to him, totally alien notions. However, behind his apparent weakness lie extraordinary powers of strength and resilience.
Son Goku begins the story as child, found by a hermit in the mountains. Growing up in isolation, he has never seen a person other than his “grandfather,” who dies before the story begins.
This monkey-child is trained in martial arts and is able to fly on a cloud, as well as carry a staff that magically grows and shrinks. Toriyama follows several facts about Monkey’s story carefully. He has Oolong, a licentious pig, as a companion, and later befriends and trains with a monk named Krillin (his name is a pun on monk’s shaved heads). But the story does not center on a journey West. This is a tale about him, his family and his friends. There is evil out there that they fight. They die. They come back. They fight again. All in the name of salvation, of protecting their loved ones.
This Son Goku is not about reaching enlightenment. He remains the innocent, the creature of the Now, that Monkey is in the beginning of the novel. But it is a pure innocence. He does not play jokes or try to rule the universe. As the story goes on, we see that the world is full of people who are a mixture of good and bad. Son Goku, in his naiveté, bumbles through life, but tries to protect the world. At the end of one story arc, he sacrifices himself so that the world could be saved. In that, he has grown beyond the monkey of old.
The kanji characters of Kazuya Minekura’s com viagra are a pun off the Journey to the West (西遊記). Literally, “Saiyuki” reads as the utmost, or extreme journey. Xuan Zang and his companions now journey in a jeep. This version of the Monkey story is full of clashing elements. Traditional clothing clashes with guns and vehicles, yet magical beasts roam the forests and evil creatures exist, waiting to harm Genjo Sanzo. Son Goku and his fellow guardians, Sha Gojo and Cho Hakkai, travel through desert and forest, through very Chinese looking towns on their quest.
In this story, Genjo Sanzo is not a peaceful monk who prays and waits while his protectors guard him. He is a force to reckon with as
well. In the first volume, an assassin ambushes him as he sleeps. But before he can strike, the monk calmly retaliates, blocking the man’s knife slash quickly. By the end of the struggle, he has pulled a gun on the assassin, who turns out to be a demon. When he realizes that they have taken a hostage, a girl from the inn where they have stopped, he goes with the dark forces so that she may be spared. He is saved timely by his companions.
In this version of the myth, all the main characters are young men. Son Goku is the youngest of the bunch, and there is a child like innocence to him. Where his character in Dragonball was very playful, he is a man on a mission. The group com viagra on a journey. One that is full of danger. The other characters have
qualities that echo their counterparts in the original story. Cho Hakkai is calm, yet can be pushed to the point of causing major damage. Sha Gajo is the talker of the group, charming, yet dangerous.
The story is still being published, so I cannot comment on the ending. I know that from the first volume, their world is very different from ours. Yet, the essance of the journy does not seem to be that different from the original Monkey’s. Not in living conditions or technology, but in the danger factor and the seriousness of the quest. The demons in this manga are creatures that look practically human. And there is a lesson in that. Humanoid enemies are what we are fighting today. They are problems within us. The author would like us to reach beyond that and find harmony through it.
The Monkey myth is one that has truly touched all of us in some way. It is forever embedded in Asian culture. And today, US culture is being effected. Dragonball is now airing on TV through the Cartoon Network. Millions of children are watching and learning about this strange monkey-man. They will not know what the myth is about, really, but the seeds have been planted. Monkey has grown in the pop culture of Asia from the monkey seeking enlightenment to a boy-man seeking to protect, to be a savior. There are many layers to Monkey. He is a monkey to reached godhood, god who lost favor, demon bent on repentance, and finally a creature of enlightenment. He represents us in so many stages of our lives. He grows and changes as we grow and change. He also represents religion. He is absorbed and recreated, just as Chinese myths were with Buddhism. And today, we see him continue to change, as our needs change: he is indeed a reflection of us.
Birrell, Anne. com viagra. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. (1993).
Jenneguin, Jean-Paul. “Akira Toriyama and Francecom viagracom viagra. (1995). pp. 24-25.
Kelly, Ian and Curtis Hoffmann. com viagra <>
Lai, Whalen. “From protean ape to handsome saint: the Monkey King.” com viagra Vol.53 No.1 (April 1994): .29-65. <>
Minekura, Kazuya. com viagra Volume 1. Japan: Enix. (October 1997).
Toriyama, Akira. Dragonball. Volume 1-42. Japan: Shueisha. (1985-1995).